Unusual summer nor’easter brings heavy rain, gales and rough seas to the coastal Atlantic

An abnormally strong low pressure system impacted the Mid-Atlantic States over the weekend. During the time of year when attention usually turns to the tropics, a winter-like Nor’easter lashed areas from D.C. to Atlantic City. The storm was spawned by a broad 500mb Analysis valid 12z 29 July 2017deep-layer trough diving into the northeastern United States from Ontario. An extended area of surface low pressure formed on Friday morning. This low stretched from Boston southwestward through West Virginia before becoming organized over Virginia during the afternoon hours. Above average sea-surface temperatures allowed ample moisture to push across the Delmarva Peninsula toward the nation’s capital. Widespread heavy rain showers developed Friday afternoon and evening, and flash flood warnings were issued from D.C. to Baltimore. Before the storm wound down on Saturday, over four inches of rain had fallen across Maryland’s most populous city, with areas to the east seeing almost six inches of rainfall.

Conditions were no better offshore, where Gale Warnings were issued from Morehead City, North Carolina to Cape Cod, Massachusetts. As the system was developing, model guidance indicated the potential for wind gusts near 70mph offshore, which is near hurricane force. Fortunately, these extreme winds did not materialize, but widespread sustained winds in excess of 35mph were noted from the Chesapeake Bay northeastward toward Rhode Island. This allowed seas to become quite rough, with significant heights pushing 12 feet just off the coast of Delaware Saturday evening.

The unseasonable strong storm finally subsided on Sunday while quickly moving east of the region. Although not tropical in nature, this weekend’s system was a reminder that the East Coast is entering the time of year where weather becomes the forefront of the mind, and this could be even more the case this August, as it looks to be particularly active in the tropics. Stay tuned!

Frequency of Tropical Cyclones in Trinidad

Bret 19 June
Infrared Satellite of Bret nearing Trinidad valid 2100UTC 19 June 2017

The second tropical storm of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Bret, tracked unusually far south impacting the island of Trinidad. Bret is only the 6th tropical system to have tracked across Trinidad in the past 100 years. Coincidentally, the last tropical storm to make landfall over Trinidad in 1993 was named Bret.

Since 1856, 43 storms have passed within 100nm of the island, but only two of these storms were major hurricanes. Typically, Trinidad is too close to the equator to experience strong tropical systems. According to WWT Meteorological Specialist, Marshall Wickman, “most systems at that latitude don’t get the Coriolis force needed for significant intensification”. Therefore, the bulk of the stronger storms and hurricanes tend to track to the north of Trinidad and Tobago.

Major Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and Flora in 1963 tracked too close for comfort. Both storms packed winds of 105 knots when within 60nm of the northern coast of the island.

For an area surrounded by water and unaccustomed to experiencing these storms, even a weak tropical storm can be frightening. 

“Trinidad experienced torrential rainfall and heavy winds for approximately three hours, especially in southern Trinidad. It was very scary and as I looked through the windows at my home, I prayed all through this period asking for protection”. 

When we checked-in with our Trinidad customers after Bret, it was heartwarming to hear that essential staff working on offshore and onshore facilities were safe. The main threats with this storm were heavy rainfall and flash flooding.

Flooding is major threat during any tropical cyclone and is not directly related to storm intensity. To learn how to stay safe during flood events, visit the National Weather Service’s flood resource page

Review of June Tropical Cyclone Activity in the Atlantic

Since the official start of the Atlantic hurricane season, June 1, two tropical storms have formed and impacted land areas. In June, the area with the greatest risk of tropical development is the Gulf of Mexico, Bay of Campeche and western Caribbean.

Origins and Tracks of June Tropical Cyclones

Contradicting climatology, Tropical Storm Bret formed 108nm East of Trinidad on June 19th. This area is typically unfavorable in June due to the amount of dry air and wind shear in the region. Bret was the earliest storm to form this far south in the Atlantic since official records began in 1851.

Bret originated as a rather unimpressive African wave, which progressed westward across the Atlantic in a marginally favorable tropical environment. A weak tropical wave to its west moistened the atmosphere over the eastern Caribbean, assisting in making conditions more favorable for Bret to develop. Here is a look at the moisture content over the tropical Atlantic in the days leading up to Bret’s formation:

noaa-goes-wv-animated-june15-16

While Bret was causing alarm in Trinidad in northern South America, Tropical Storm Cindy began to develop over the northern Gulf of Mexico. Cindy originated as an area of disturbed weather over the western Caribbean and Central America, and became Invest 93L East of the Yucatan Peninsula on June 17th.

This broad, disorganized low became difficult to track over the next five days. The ECMWF model maintained a forecast for landfall over Mexico or southern Texas. On the other hand, the GFS model favored a landfall near the Florida Panhandle. The discrepancy between the global model tracks continued through landfall on June 22. Higher resolution, regional forecast models eventually offered a more accurate middle-ground solution near the upper-Texas coast.     

Weak steering flow in the region contributed to the poor model performances. Another complexity was the close proximity to an upper level low over the northwest Gulf of Mexico. This feature provided high wind shear, resulting in a disorganized and asymmetrical storm. As a result, Cindy appeared to be subtropical rather than purely tropical through its duration. Southwesterly upper level winds from the trough pulled dry air into Cindy, restricting deep convection to the East side of the storm. Cindy’s battle with dry air on June 20th is seen in the brown coloring in the NOAA water vapor animation below.

WV Cindy Tues

High pressure from the western U.S. eventually built eastward over Texas, forcing Cindy to move northward. Air Force Reserve reconnaissance aircraft and a nearby ship confirmed a maximum intensity of 50kts the evening of June 20. Despite being a weak tropical storm, Cindy produced a large area of gale force winds and storm force gusts across the northern Gulf of Mexico. Cindy weakened to 40kts before making landfall near Sabine Pass, Texas on June 22nd.

NASA IMERG Data Cindy 2017
Cindy Estimated Total Rainfall from NASA

Both storms were short-lived with the primary threats of heavy rainfall and flash flooding. The Trinidad & Tobago Meteorological Service forecast 2-6 inches of rain for Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada and its Dependencies during the passage of Bret. NASA’s Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) data estimated rainfall totals over the eastern Gulf of Mexico and southeastern U.S. for the duration of Cindy. Notably, rainfall in excess of 10 inches occurred well east of Cindy’s center over the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and along the Gulf coast from southeastern Louisiana to the western Florida Panhandle.

The peak of the Atlantic hurricane season is still to come, so it’s important to remain vigilant for any approaching tropical storm. Whether you are concerned with a tropical storm tracking toward the eastern Caribbean, or a major hurricane developing in the Gulf of Mexico, our meteorologists are available 24/7 to keep you ahead of the storm.

Contact us to learn more about our online and mobile interactive tracking tools.

Why we treat some Invest areas like tropical storms…

It’s critical that offshore operators are aware of tropical hazards well in advance of tropical storm development. 

Tropical Storm Bill, June 16 2015
Infrared Satellite of Tropical Storm Bill approaching the Texas coast.

Two years ago we were monitoring an area of disturbed weather near the Yucatan Peninsula. At the time, forecast models indicated that a trough of low pressure would move offshore the Yucatan within the next 24 hours and form a closed circulation as it tracked northwest toward the Texas coastal bend. Hurricane Carlos, off the southern coast of Mexico, was feeding in abundant tropical moisture from the Pacific, aiding thunderstorm development. Over the next few days, upper-level winds over the Gulf weakened, enhancing convection and improving the low-level circulation. Within 36 hours a tropical storm was designated over the northern Gulf of Mexico. About 15 hours later, Tropical Storm Bill made landfall over Matagorda Island, Texas with maximum sustained winds near 60 mph.Read More »

Tornado Diaries: May 18th, 2013

The first post in this series detailed an exhilarating and dangerous chase under cover of night in northwestern Iowa. As a storm chaser, the drawback to a night chase is the near impossibility of acquiring photos and videos of the storms. On the afternoon of May 18th, 2013, darkness was not an issue as a violent tornado tracked across the open country of southwestern Kansas.

I had just graduated from Iowa State University the week before. My thoughts at the time were not on severe weather, but that would quickly change as long range forecast models indicated a multiple day severe weather threat across the Southern Plains. Recent grads and I made the decision to embark on one last chase in Oklahoma and Kansas before moving into the “real world.”

Read More »

Tornado Diaries: April 9th, 2011

Most meteorologists recall a moment in their childhood that fostered their obsession with weather. My moment was in second grade, when a severe thunderstorm hit my hometown while school was in session. I vividly remember classmates being frightened, while I sat in the school’s basement thinking the situation was pretty sweet, to use with the parlance of a second grader. After that day, I was hooked on severe weather, and although that specific event did not spawn a tornado, I remain fascinated by them to this day.

Many years later while attending Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, I had opportunities to travel across the Midwest during spring and summer, in search of the elusive and dangerous tornado. There are three specific storm chases I will be detailing this spring, the first of which occurred on April 9th, 2011.Read More »

2016 West Pacific Tropical Season Recap

The 2016 West Pacific tropical season was near normal with 24 named storms, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). A total of 13 storms reached typhoon status and 6 became super typhoons. This fell short of the annual average of 16.5 storms reaching at least typhoon status.

Typhoon Nepartak became the first named storm of the year on July 3, breaking a 199-day streak of no named storms across the basin.This tied the 1997-1998 interval for the longest number of days to pass without a named storm. Nepartak was classified as a super typhoon on July 6 and maintained one-minute sustained winds of 152kts (175mph) for 18 hours while tracking northwest toward Taiwan.The storm weakened to 130kts (150mph) before making landfall over Taiwan on July 8 (Taiwan local time). Continued weakening occurred as Nepartak tracked across mountainous terrain, and the storm made its final landfall over China on July 9 as a tropical storm.

Super Typhoon Nepartak Radar Taiwan
Super Typhoon Nepartak’s heavy rainbands approach Taiwan

Other significant storms to impact Taiwan in 2016:

  • Super Typhoon Meranti made a nearly direct hit to Taiwan on September 14. The extended time over water promoted further intensification and a peak intensity of 165kts (190mph) over the Luzon Strait.
  • Typhoon Megi intensified over the Philippine Sea and made landfall over northeastern Taiwan on Tuesday, September 27 with maximum sustained winds near 115kts (132mph).
NOAA Satellite Super Typhoon Meranti Taiwan
Eye of Super Typhoon Meranti nearing the southern tip of Taiwan

The northern South China Sea was also an active area in 2016. Marine assets offshore Hong Kong took direct hits from two typhoons, Nida and Haima, and Typhoon Sarika passed just to their south. Here are a few details on these storms:

  • Typhoon Nida developed east of the Philippines and reached typhoon status north of Luzon. Nida intensified to 80kts (92mph) before making landfall east of Hong Kong in Dapeng Peninsula on August 2. Storm photos can be found here.
  • Typhoon Sarika began as a tropical wave southeast of the Philippines. Sarika reached its peak intensity of 115kts (132mph) before making its first landfall in Luzon. The cyclone moved quickly across the Philippines and the South China Sea, and made a second landfall across Hainan Island. The storm continued to weaken as it made its third and final landfall near the Vietnam/China border.
  • Super Typhoon Haima caused mass destruction across the Philippines just days after Sarika. Photos and video footage from the devastating storm can be viewed here. Haima ranked as the third strongest typhoon of the season with maximum sustained winds of 145 kts (167mph). The storm weakened to 122kts (140mph) before making landfall over Luzon on October 19.

UW-Madison CIMSS Twitter Typhoon Haima

While around half of 2016 West Pacific typhoons followed a general East to West track, the other half were able to find a weakness in the steering ridge and curve northward. Mainland Japan would be directly impacted by four of these typhoons (Nepartak, Mindulle, Lionrock, and Malakas); however, the majority of these weakened significantly before making landfall. Typhoon Lionrock was the most unique system of the season given its length of life and erratic track.

Track map of Typhoon Lionrock. Points represent the storm’s location at 6-hour intervals. Color scale based on Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. Tracking data provided by NOAA.

Of the main cyclones to impact the mid-latitudes, Typhoon Chaba tracked the closest to offshore interests in the Korea Strait and Sea of Japan. Chaba reached super typhoon intensity upon entering the East China Sea on October 3 and then gradually weakened as it moved south of Busan, South Korea. Chaba moved across northern Japan as an extratropical cyclone.

Just as the season’s first named storm became a super typhoon, the season’s final named storm also became a super typhoon. Nock-ten developed near Yap Island on December 21st. Nock-ten would become the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded worldwide on Christmas Day. Nock-ten made landfall across the Philippines on the evening of Christmas Day before emerging across the South China Sea the next day. Nock-ten dissipated in the Northeast Monsoon on December 28th, bringing an end to the 2016 West Pacific tropical season.

WWT tracked all of these storms for stationary assets and marine transits across the West Pacific and Southeast Asia.

WWT West Pacific Tropical Summary
You can always check the latest forecast on the WWT mobile app.

About Wilkens Weather Tropical Weather Guidance

Wilkens Weather provides a variety of tropical products to monitor potential development, forecast tracks, and anticipated intensities of tropical systems in this region. Tropical service options include tropical cyclone formation alerts (TCFAs) and tropical cyclone bulletins. Once tropical cyclone bulletins commence, clients are provided a wealth of resources to review the storm data and potential impacts on their site-specific locations. The interactive tropical tools on our website and Mobile App provide clients with the flexibility to focus on the needs of their operation.

Site-specific storm bulletins with alert areas are also available and may be customized to the needs of a current project or operation. 

 

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A Review of Houston Heavy Rain Events in 2015-2016

April 16, 2016 Houston Flood Olivia Kintigh
Houston Tax Day Flood 2016

Houston, Texas rainfall was above average (49 inches) in 2015 and 2016. This was in sharp contrast to the 24 inch deficit in rainfall a few years prior. 2015 was the 5th wettest year on record for Houston, with 70.03 inches at KIAH and 77.13 inches at KHOU. Records at KIAH and KHOU, date back to 1889. Here’s a look back at the heavy rainfall events that resulted in these excessive totals:Read More »

Severe Storms Roll into the New Year

NCDC Level-II Data January 2017
NEXRAD Level-II reflectivity (left) and velocity (right) from 8:30am CST 01/02/17

It was a stormy and soggy start to 2017 for millions along the Gulf coast as a vigorous line of thunderstorms tracked from Southeast Texas to the Florida Panhandle on January 2nd. Sparked by an amplified trough of low pressure aloft, surface low pressure moved across Southeast Texas early Monday, causing widespread convection to form along and east of I-35. These storms moved quickly eastward through the morning hours, entering the Houston metro area after 7am CST.

Read More »

2015 Holiday Storm Retrospective

A powerful storm system tracked across the northern Great Plains this holiday season. Heavy snows and blizzard conditions were observed in the Dakotas, strong storms occurred in Kansas and Missouri, and an ice storm developed in areas between. Of significant note was a tornado report in Kansas that if confirmed would be the first tornado recorded on Christmas day in that state. In addition, wind gusts in excess of 70 mph were reportedIowa Environmental Mesonet Wind Speed Reports December 2016 in northwestern Iowa, causing structural damage in the area. These conditions are a stark reminder that like meteorologists, Mother Nature does not take the holidays off. Interestingly, a similar storm system impacted the southern plains last holiday season.

One year ago, a major storm system moved from Texas through the Great Lakes, capping off a year filled with extreme weather in Texas and beyond. Read More »

Major Hurricane Wilma, 11 years later

CIMSS NOAA Satellite Montage WilmaHurricane Wilma was the 21st named storm of the infamous 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. From her formation on October 15th to her demise on the 26th, Wilma would become one of the most memorable hurricanes in Atlantic basin history. As the 4th category 5 hurricane of the year, Wilma would become a monstrous bookend to an incredible, record-setting season.Read More »

A quick mid-year review of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season

To this date, the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season has recorded twelve named storms and one tropical depression, including Hurricane Alex from January. By the end of September we will likely see the next storm develop as signs of strengthening continue with an active tropical wave (97L). Currently, 97L is located roughly 470 miles east-southeast of Barbados tracking to the west about 15-20 knots. The tropical wave will either intensify into Tropical Depression Fourteen or Tropical Storm Matthew. The 30-year average (1981-2010) for the Atlantic basin consists of twelve named storms. With two months left in the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season, one can conclude that an above average recording of named storms will likely occur.

midyear-review-graphic

Read More »

Remembering 2005’s Major Hurricane Rita in the Gulf of Mexico

Hurricane Rita made landfall in extreme southwestern Louisiana on September 24th, 2005 with an intensity of 100 knots (Category 3). About 48 hours earlier, Rita was a Category 5 hurricane with a minimum pressure of 895mb, the fourth-lowest central pressure on record in the Atlantic basin. Although Rita’s history was overshadowed by Katrina, which made landfall just a few weeks earlier, the storm provided a unique challenge for both forecasters and public officials.

NASA Rita Terra satellite_20050918
NASA satellite image of Tropical Depression Eighteen over the Bahamas on Sept. 18, 2005

Rita originated as a weak tropical wave off the western coast of Africa on September 7th. The Saharan Air Layer, commonly known as Saharan Dust, and high levels of wind shear prevented the wave from producing thunderstorm activity as it moved across the tropical Atlantic. Conditions became more favorable for development later in the month as the wave reached the Bahamas. A tropical depression formed on September 17th and the system was designated as Tropical Storm Rita the following afternoon.

Rita continued to strengthen as it tracked across the Florida Straits, reaching Category 2 status by the time it reached the Gulf of Mexico on the 20th. Over the next 18 hours, the storm underwent rapid intensification over the Loop Current, becoming a Category 5 storm with an intensity of 145 knots. Rita continued to intensify and recorded an incredible 70mb drop in central pressure in a 24-hour period. At maximum intensity on September 22nd, Rita’s central pressure was estimated to be 895mb with winds near 155 knots (178 mph).

NASA Aqua satellite_20050923
NASA satellite image showing Hurricane Rita approaching the Gulf coast on Sept. 23, 2005

Thankfully for the residents of the Gulf Coast, Rita did not maintain its unprecedented strength as it pushed ashore. After moving past the Loop Current the system gradually weakened to a Category 3 before making landfall near Sabine Pass as a major hurricane. Hurricane force winds spread over 150 miles from the center while tropical storm force winds stretched as far north as the Louisiana/Arkansas border. Peak storm surge of nearly 17 feet occurred on the eastern side of Rita, causing severe flooding in several parishes in southwestern Louisiana. Heavy rainfall worsened this situation, with most of southwestern Louisiana receiving 7-10 inches, with some areas receiving over 15.

Rita continued to progress northeastward after being absorbed by a front across the central United States. That accelerated movement prevented a significant flood event in the Ohio River valley, with most rainfall totals being limited to around 2-3 inches as the remnant low raced toward the Great Lakes.

Although meteorological impacts to extreme southeastern Texas and southwestern Louisiana were unforgettable, only seven direct deaths occurred as a result of Rita in the United States. Most citizens in the southwestern Louisiana coastal areas evacuated before the worst impacts arrived, likely significantly reducing the death toll in that area.

The majority of the storm’s causalities occurred during the evacuation iWWT Hurricane Rita Wind Speed Analysisn Texas, where poor planning and heightened fears, resulting from Katrina, resulted in mass gridlock around Houston. Over 100 Texans perished due to accidents, fires, and health related issues during the evacuation. Much work has since been done to streamline the evacuation process from the Houston area, including the streamlining of the contraflow process on major highways exiting the city.

 

 

Remembering 2008’s Hurricane Ike

Hurricane Ike produced devastating storm surge as it came ashore over the east end of Galveston Island on September 13th, 2008.

Formation & Impacts to the Caribbean

Ike originated as a tropical wave off the coast of Africa and moved west-northwest across the Atlantic. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) designated the system as a tropical depression on SepteNHC forecast track for Hurricane Ikember 1st. The storm became significantly better organized by the 3rd and was upgraded to a hurricane that afternoon. Early the next morning, Hurricane Ike reached major hurricane status (Category 4) with maximum sustained winds of 125 knots and an estimated central pressure of 935mbThe storm weakened over the next few days due to moderate wind shear from high pressure to the northwest. This high, over the western Atlantic, was strong enough to force an unusual turn to the west-southwest. This heightened the threat for the Bahamas and northwestern Caribbean. 

This uncharacteristic turn led Ike into a more favorable environment, causing the storm to re-intensify to Category 4 status. The cyclone made its first landfall on Great Inagua Island in the southeastern Bahamas the morning of September 7th. 5-7 inches of rain were reported on the island and high winds destroyed several structures including a cruise ship terminal.  The economic impacts for Turks and Caicos and the Bahamas was estimated between $50 and $200 million (USD). Additionally, Ike’s rainbands caused deadly flooding and mudslides in Haiti – a country still recovering from three tropical systems that hit earlier that year (Fay, Gustav, and Hanna).

Hurricane Ike continued tracking west and made its second landfall near Cabo Lucrecia, Cuba on the morning of September 8th. Winds were estimated to be 115 knots (Category 4 status) at landfall. Large waves, as high as 50 ft, were likely responsible for damaged coastal homes and structures in the city of Baracoa. As much as 12-14 inches of rain fell on parts of the island.  Additionally, over 300,000 homes were damaged, 13% of which were total losses.  Destruction of crops, roadways and buildings also resulted in an estimated $3 and $4 billion (USD) in damages.  

Gulf of Mexico & Early Impacts to the Oil & Gas Industry

The mountainous island weakened Ike to a Category 1 hurricane as it passed briefly over the waters south of Cuba and entered the Gulf of Mexico near San Cristóbal, Cuba on the evening of September 9th.  Since Ike had weakened and lacked a tight inner core, high nasa_trmmsatwinds and heavy rains spread over an unusually large area as the storm tracked northwest across the Gulf of Mexico: Tropical storm and hurricane force winds extended 240nm and 100nm, respectively, from the center. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite passed over Ike early on the 12th, showing rainfall rates in excess of two inches per hour in the southeast quadrant of the storm.

Early preparations for Hurricane Ike caused at least 14 oil refineries in Texas and Louisiana to be shut down in advance of the storm, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. This was significant since over 1.3 million barrels per day of crude oil and over 7.3 billion cubic feet per day of natural gas could not be delivered to these facilities.

Landfall over Galveston Island, TX & Impacts to the United States & Canada

Ike maintained a large wind field over the central Gulf of Mexico as it tracked west-northwest toward the upper Texas coast through September 12th. In the hours before landfall, high water levels began impacting the Gulf coast as Ike turned north-northwest and strengthened to a Category 2 hurricane. Ike would make its third landfall along the northeast end of Galveston Island, TX early  on September 13th with maximum sustained winds near 95 knots (110 mph).

 

Ike Storm Surge Galveston Harris County Flood Control District

West of Grand Isle, Louisiana storm surge heights increased significantly: 10-13 feet from the southwest Louisiana coast to Port Arthur, Texas. The maximum storm surge recorded by any NOS tide gauge was 12.79 feet at Sabine Pass North, Texas. However, many USGS sensors indicated that there were likely localized areas with surge heights up to 17 feet. The Bolivar Peninsula and portions of Chambers County, Texas were most severely impacted by Ike’s storm surge. Most of this area was inundated by 10 feet of water. Widespread 5-7 inches of rain were reported across southeast Texas, with the highest amount measured north of Houston at 18.90 inches.  

NOAA Hurricane Ike Radar Loop

Tornadoes touched down in Texas (1), Louisiana (17), and Arkansas (9).  All of these were either EF0 or EF1 rating, which is typical within tropical air masses.  Storm-related fatalities totalled 19 in Texas, one in Louisiana, and one in Arkansas.  Damages across the three states totalled about $29.52 billion dollars, making it the second costliest hurricane to impact the United States, after Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

Although Ike weakened inland, the storm merged with a cold front on the 14th, which resulted in hurricane force wind gusts and 3-5 inches of rain across the Ohio Valley, an area just flooded by a passing low pressure system the week before. Storm-related fatalities across Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Michigan and Pennsylvania totalled 28.  Damage estimates for these states were nearly $4.7 billion. Hurricane force wind gusts and record rainfall were also reported across portions of southeastern Canada in the subsequent days.  

Remembering Galveston: The Great Hurricane of 1900

If you have been to Galveston, Texas, you are quite familiar with the city’s seawall. Construction began in 1902 as a response to the Great Hurricane of 1900, which devastated the city exactly 116 years ago today.

galveston1900On Sept. 4, 1900, Galveston was notified of a hurricane moving north of Cuba. Without the aid of modern forecasting technology, Galveston residents were unaware of the precise movement and potential track of the impending hurricane. As the hurricane progressed through the Gulf of Mexico it experienced rapid strengthening before it made landfall just a few miles southwest of Galveston. Meteorologists estimated winds of at least 130 miles per hour as the storm barreled through the city. With a storm surge of over 15 feet, Galveston was inundated with water. Residents received warnings of the hurricane the morning of Sept. 8, however many neglected the advisories. Texas’ fourth largest city had lost nearly 6,000 – 8,000 residents when the sun rose the next day. The Great Hurricane of 1900 is known as the “deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history”.Read More »